Das doofe Fischlied (or, finally understanding German cases and word gender!)

I used to think that the hardest part of learning German is that there are three ways of saying ‘the’.

  • Masculine ‘der’, for example, der Mann -the man.
  • Feminine ‘die, for example, die Maus – the mouse
  • And neutral, ‘das’, for example, das Haus – the house.

And… actually there are four ways of saying ‘the’ if you add in the plural form:

  • Plural – die Freunde – the friends

And then there are accusative-case ways of saying all these four types of the word ‘the’, if you need to connect a verb or preposition that uses the accusative form. For example if you want to say, ‘I will advise the man’ because you have a lot of advice (der Rat) you want to give him, you’d say ‘Ich werde den Mann beraten).

Note the word magic happening as ‘der Mann’ changes to ‘den Mann’, a previous ‘r’ making way for a new letter ‘n’.

But how come?

And then there’s dative-case ways of saying ‘the’. For example, ‘Ich hilfe dem Mann beim (bei dem) Einkaufen’. More grammar magic as not only the masculine ‘der’ changes to ‘dem’… but the neutral ‘das’ as well? Even more grammar magic as ‘Ich hilfe der Frau’ and ‘Ich hilfe den Kindern’ start happening.

And genitive-case ways – even though genitive is relatively easy (and also, unfortunately, isn’t in this cool video I found.)

But do I find this hard anymore? Well, yeah, especially when I don’t know which case to actually use – I found a cool video from this website, angelikasgerman.co.uk that makes all this a whole lot easier!

(And also, shout out to my former German teacher, who used to sing the cases to us  before I found this other song – which by no means is better than your song, Mr. L. It’s… just different.)

Lyrics of Mr’s L’s song:

(Nominative) der die das die

(Accusative) den die das die

(Dativ) dem der dem den

(Genetiv) des der des der


But it’s great if there’s more than one way to remember something, so..

Here’s Das doofe Fischleid, written by Brad Yoder!

(And yes, that does mean ‘The Dumb Fish Song’ in English. It is kinda dumb, but kinda fun at the same time.)

NOM: der gute Mann
ein guter Mann
der gute Mann
ein guter Mann
(For the masculine nominative, the adjective ending -r is used where you need to use ‘ein’ – I think because the ‘r’ from der jumps over to the adjective. Good thing, otherwise you wouldn’t know which case the word is, and confuse it with ‘das’)

Zum Beispeil: ein guter Holzhacker – ein guter Programmer

AKK:Schlag den guten Mann nicht!
Schlag einen guten Mann nicht!
Schlag den guten Mann nicht!
(If used in accusative, the masculine word will then have -en’ at the end of its articles (der and ein) and at the end of the adjectives) –
Ich rufe den guten Holzhacker – Ich berate einen guten Mann

DAT: Gib dem guten Mann einen Fisch
Gib einem guten Mann einen Fisch

(I give TO a dative person, an accusative thing. (or, I give an accusative thing to a dative person, )
I think that because zu would take the dative, (Gib zu dem guten Mann einen Fisch,) you would just skip the word ‚zu‘.
Wir geben dem guten Mann den Fisch/die Katze/das Brot.
All these gifts would be in the accusative, but you can only see it with masculine words.

Onto neutral words now – das Haus!

Nom: Das schone Haus
Ein schones Haus
Das schone Haus
Ein schones Haus

(So, as you can see, the ending for all neutral ‘das’ words is ‘es’.
I think of it as the ‘das’ is trying to join onto the adjective when the ein is there, because otherwise you could get it confused with a masculine word. However, only the ‘s’ (or es’) joins at the end of an adjective.
Das schnelle Auto -Ein schnelles Auto
Das lange Wort – Ein langes Wort

Schlag das schone Haus nicht!
Schlag ein schones Haus nicht!
Schlag das schone Haus nicht!
(In the accusative, the neutral ‚das‘ endings don’t change, nor does the feminine die. Maybe because of them not changing, the adjective ‘schon’ stays the same as before as well.)

DATIV: Gib dem schonen Haus einen Tisch
Gib einem schonen Haus einen Tisch
(As you can see, the masculine and the neutral articles ‚der and ‚das‘ BOTH change to ‚dem‘.)
Also, any dative adjective will end in en.

Feminine: Die kleine Maus
Eine kleine Maus
Die kleine Maus
Eine kleine Maus

(Nominative feminine just has ‘e’ at the end. )

Schlag die kleine Maus nicht!
Schlag eine kleine Maus nicht!
Schlag die kleine Maus nicht!
(The akkusative feminine doesn’t change, unlike the masculine)

Die kleine Maus
Eine kleine Maus
Die kleine Maus
Eine kleine Maus
Schlag die kleine Maus nicht!

Gib der kleinen Maus einen Fisch!
Gib einer kleinen Maus einen Fisch!

Die guten Freunde
Meine guten Freunde
(The adjective ending here is ‚en‘ – for both th direct and indirect articles.)

Schlag die guten Freunde nicht!
Schlag meine guten Freunde nicht!
Schlag die guten Freunde nicht!
(The accusative of the plural doesn’t change its article. So I can say – ‚Ich rufe meine Freunde‘.) The only thing it does change is the adjective, adding an ‚en‘ – Ich rufe meine lustigen Fruende.

DATIV: Gib den guten Freunden einen Fisch
Gib meinen guten Freunden einen Fisch

(Dativ – It seems the dative is the only case that changes the plurals’ articles – to den and meinen.
It also changes the ending of the adjective- so you add ‘en’
The dative also changes the actual word’s end, for some words, for example den armen Kindern

Brad Yoder wrote the song, and at the time of writing is still active, writing songs in English.  Not sure whether he’s a German teacher, or just likes German, but whichever way, his song should help lots of people learn!

Viel Spass bei dem Lernen!


Osterfilm – Die Hӓschenschule: Jagd nach dem Goldenen Ei

Image result for Die Haschenschule- Jagd nach dem goldenen Ei

Almost every child knows of the story Easter Bunny – a hare (not a rabbit) who goes around hiding colourful eggs, which the children then have to find on Easter morning. What many people may not know is:

  •  that the Easter Bunny was originally German!
  • There’s an old but classic 1924 German children’s book called ‘die Haschenschule’- about the school that trains young hares to become Osterhase – Ester hares
  • There’s a new film based off this book called ‘Die Haschenschule – Jagd nach dem goldenen Ei’ In February it was entered into the Berlinale –the German version of the Oscars, where films are entered to win prizes in each category-  and it showed in the German Kinos (cinemas) in March 2017.

So, yes – the Easter Bunny did actually originate in Germany.-  In at least the 15th century, from which we have the first Latin records of the Easter Bunny, German Protestants created the idea of a hare, to symbolise fertility, carrying coloured eggs, and sometimes even sweets and toys!

Image result for Osterei

Ostereien in einem Krbchen/ Easter eggs in a small basket

Why eggs, you might ask? Apparently, before fasting in Lent, people would preserve their eggs in order to be able to eat them afterwards, when the fast of Lent was over. The eggs would be decorated brightly as part of the celebrations. Although the German Protestants didn’t continue the fasting, they did continue with the tradition of eggs at Easter, including decorating them. In the 18th century, the story of the Osterhase- the Easter hare – was spread to the U.S – and the rest is history.

Image result for Osterhase

Eine Hase mit Ostereien/ A hare with Easter eggs

Noticeably, the Easter Bunny is *supposed* to be a hare, and not a rabbit. (However, they look similar- what’s the difference?) 😊 The Easter Bunny legend continued as parents told their children, in Germany, the Netherlands, the USA, the UK…

German Protestants created the idea of an Easter hare, to symbolise fertility, carrying coloured eggs, and sometimes even sweets and toys!

What about Australia, you might ask. Good question!

The Australians have an ‘Easter Bilby’ – Billy the Aussie Easter Bilby, was written in 1968,  created by a nine-year old girl.) The idea of the Easter Bilby is  used to raise awareness of the bilby and its protection – as the rabbit was brought to Australia from Europe, and competes for food with the bilby, an Australian native animal, causing the bibly to become endangered. To emphasise this point and help the bilby, some Australians wrote an added complication into the story – that the Easter Bilby had to fight off the evil rabbit army who tried to steal the eggs. So now you can find chocolate Easter Bilbies in Australia, instead of the Easter Bunny.)


Jagd nach dem goldenen Ei Trailer videohttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8aFR7Gydg4E

I mention that point because it’s in a way similar to this film. ‘Die Haschenschule’ is about young hare- die Haschen – learning how to become Easter hares in the titular Rabbit School (Hare School doesn’t have the same ring to it…sorry.), They also have to stop the foxes from stealing their eggs- particularly the magic golden Ei, also in the title.

(Synopsis in German here: kino.de – http://www.kino.de/film/die-haeschenschule-jagd-nach-dem-goldenen-ei-2017/)

The main character is a young hare called Max, who at first reads about the Haschenschule in a book – possibly the book in real life- meta! – and doesn’t believe the school really exists. Until he crash-lands into it one day on an out-of-control remote-control biplane.

Besides, Max wants to be the cool kid in the city with the ‘Wahnsinnig-Gang’, and doesn’t like rules and the quiet country life, which he at first believes is all the Haschenschule has to offer. But then he meets a new friend, Emmi, and discovers that more important than being the coolest, is helping your friends.

Das goldenen Ei

https://www.berlinale.de/de/programm/berlinale_programm/datenblatt.php?film_id=201712680#tab=video25 (Clip about the golden egg, in German with English subtitles, on the Berlinale website.)

Image result for Die Haschenschule- Jagd nach dem goldenen Ei

And- oh yes- the magic golden egg in the Haschenschule? It gives the hares the power to disappear. They call this power, Der Verschwindibus – and have to stop the foxes from stealing the golden egg! But are the foxes really as wicked as they seem?

Here’s a cool trailer I found:



‘Fangt ihn mir!’ – catch him for me! – The Mutter Fuchs yells this, to try and catch Max as he flies past.

Ein Engel (0:35)- An angel – Max calls Emmi this, as he doesn’t know if he made it after the crash.

Schlafsaal – dormitory – (0:44)

Hinter Mond leben – to be behind the times (0:56)

Der Verschwindibus- (made up word) – the magic power that comes from the golden egg, allowing the hares to disappear- verschwinden

kreigen – to get, grab


The main character Max is voiced by Noah Levi, who also sings the title song – he was a contestant in The Voice Kids Deutschland.



The director is Ute Monchow-Pohl – She’s known for other German animation such as Laura’s Star (Lauras Stern), Lars der kleine Eisbӓr and Der Kleine Rabe Socke.

(the song by Noah Levi, created for the film) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l7R2_UMxWDA – Heir will ich bleiben (Home Sweet Home)

I can imagine Max, singing this to his new friends as he realises how much he needs them.

Ich hin lang hinter her

Auf der Suche für ne Platz für mich,

Am anfang war das schwer

veil ausprobeirt, nicht Sinn gekreigt

Ihr hat mir gezeigt, was man erreichen kann, wenn man Fruende hat,

Es ich Zeit euch mal zu sagen – es wie die Hammer sagt!

Hier will ich bleib mit euch und Zeit vertreiben


Hier will ich blieben

Gutes Gefühl im Bauch,

Ich gehore?  (herheir?)

Fühlst du was auch?


Hier will ich blieben

Ich sag’st dir ganz genau

Hab meinen Platz gefunden

Denn hier bin ich zu Haus!

(Home sweet home) – yup, in English


(My home sweet home)

(Home sweet home)


(My home sweet home)

Ich hab es jetzt kapiert?

Mit euch macht alles viel mehr Spass

Warum allein probieren

Nur gemeinsam sind wir richtig stark!

Egal ob  (Opfern? Ob fern??) , ihr sied da für mich, und ich für euch.

Es ist Zeit ob mal zu sagen: Es ist wie die besten Zeit!

(Ja, und ich wiess nicht was zu sagen…)

Hier seid mein Zuhause (Yeah-yeah)

Da wo ihr seid, gehӧr‘ ich denn

Heir seid meine Fruende, (Yeah-yeah)

Mach mit zu dem, da ich jetzt bin.



Hier will ich blieben

Gutes Gefühl im Bauch,

Ich gehore?  (herheir?)

Fühlst du was auch?

Hier will ich blieben

Ich sag’st dir ganz genau

Hab meinen Platz gefunden

Denn hier bin ich zu Haus!

Noah Levi: Home sweet Home

If you want to wish your German friends happy Easter, this is what to say….

Image result for Easter Frohe Ostern

Frohe Ostern, alles! 🙂

Das christliche Passionspiel für Oster – The Christian passion play for Easter


Image result for Passionsspiel

The stage in Oberammergau where the passion plays in Germany are performed/ Die Buhne in Oberammergau, wo die Passionspeile in Deutschland wird aufgefuhrt.


For Christians, the real meaning of Easter is nothing to do with chocolate eggs or Easter bunnies – it is a celebration of the resurrection of Jesus Christ in the Christian tradition. That’s my religion, by the way. The story goes that Jesus, the son of God, died on the cross for the sins of humanity, and yet he rose again on what is now known as Easter Sunday.


In some places, there are plays to recreate this religious story, particularly in Germany (in the Oberammergau, which is a Gemeide (municipality or – roughly- town)  in the Landkreis Garmisch-Partenkirschen, in the south of the Bundesland of Bavaria.


The real meaning of Easter is nothing to do with chocolate eggs… – it is a celebration of the resurrection of Jesus Christ

However, the apparently slightly older tradition of performing passion plays is also to be found in Austria, in the Gemeide of Erl, which is in the Bezirk of Kufstein, in the Bundesland Tirol.


In 2015, German kids in the church performed the play.



However, adults normally perform the passion plays – as this trailer shows in Oberammergau: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M7uFUB2tl3A



Words from the children’s Passionspeil: (see if you can find them all)


Jesu Christi – Jesus Christ

Petrus – Peter (at 3:56, er verteidigt Jesu – aber er muss dreimal leugnen, dass er kennt ihn. – 5:34)

Judas – der Junge, der Jesus verratet

Pontius Pilate – Pontius Pilatus

Barrabas – ein Verbrecher

Simon – Ein Feld-Abreiter, der Jesu hilft, der Kreus zu tragen

zwei Verbrechen an Kreuz neben Jesus – two criminals on the cross next to Jesus





Die Orgel – the organ (not in the video, but it’s the instrument being played in the church)

Die Kirche- the church

Die Junge – the boys

der Schweiss – sweat

das Blut – blood

der Begrussungskuss- greeting kiss (der die Jesu verratet 3:30)

die Finsternis – the darkness

die Macht- the power

der Hof – the c1ourtyard

die obersten Preiste – the high Preists

Verbrechen – crime

die Spotkrone – the ‚crown‘ (to mock and ridicule)

der Spott – ridicule, satire?

die Dorne – thorns

Mitlied – sympathy

der Hugel – the hill (16:23)

der Leichnahm – the body

Grab – grave (25:00)

Sünden – sins (25:50 – Er hat uns von unseren Sünden befreit)



neider/knien – to bow

beten – to pray

geschesen – to happen

tropfen – to drip

vereinbaren – to agree (3:35)

festnehmen – to take prisoner

verteidigen- to defend – (3:56)

heilen – to heal

kraen – to crow, …wie ein Hahn.

leugnen- to deny

bezeugen – to testify (8:12)

frei/lassen – to let free

kreuzigen – to crucify (9:12 – The people yelled to Pilate to crucify Jesus – ‚Kreuzige ihn!’)

auf/peitschen  – to whip (10:40)

verspotten – to mock, ridicule (10:09)

jemanden anspuken – to spit at

schulgen – to hit (or to hammer to – 16:31)

hinausführten – to bring out (12:20)

sterben – to die

klagen – to mourn






Idioms/ Sentences – Sӓtze/Idiomen

Das Schwert zeugen – to draw the sword

Herauf damit! – Stop that!

Meine Kӧnnigstum ist nicht von dieser Welt – My kingdom is not of this world (8:07)

die Wahrheit zu bezeugen – to testify to the truth (8:12)

Gottes Sohn – God’s Son.

Jemand schuldig zu sprechen – to name someone guilty

zum Tode verurteilen – to jugde someone to death

Sei gegrusst, Konig! – Be greeted, king

Auf meinen Fled arbeiten – to work on my fields – 13:21

der Kreus tragen – to carry the cross

‘Weint nicht uber mich  – weint uber euch, und eure Kinder’ – (14: – Don’t cry about me, but cry about yourselves and your children.)

‚Hilft Euch selber, und steig hinab vom Kreus!‘ – (mocking) – Help yourself, and get down from the cross!

‚Heute noch, werdest du mit mir in Paradies sein‘ – Today you will be with me in paradise – (18:06)

‚Ich habe Durst‘ – I am thirsty (19:02)

Es war etwa zwolf Uhr mittags – It was 12 o clock midday.

Nach diesen Wortern, hauchte er den Geist aus – After these words, he breathed his last.

Jesus war tot – Jesus was dead.

‘Wir bitten fur alle Menschen, die anderen in Krankenhausen oder Altenheim helfen, dass sie wie Veronika Verduld und Verstandis zeigen.‘(27:36)

von Ewigkeit zu Ewigkeit – for all eternity




DorFuchs- deutscher Musiker-Mathematiker: (AKA- How to multiply two digit numbers in your head!)

Image result for dorfuchs multiplizieren

(Image from YouTube)

Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EqWZGjskZUk

…And other cool videos. So, I was watching the videos of the awesome Vi Hart, one of my favourite mathematical YouTubers, the other day because I was late for Pi Day. (The link leads to Vi’s featured video Twelve Tones, about the musical constraint of using all twelve notes in a song.) Vi’s Pi Day videos are particularly interesting because usually they aren’t about celebrating Pi but its twice-multiplied, yet often-forgotten cousin, tau – more on which you can find in her videos.

Pi Day, for those of you who were unaware, is the 14th of March – because in the American calendar the number of the month (3, because March is the third month) is put in front of the day (the 14th) so 3(month)/14(day)/2017 – whereas in European calendars it is the other way around. (so Pi Day would be the 14th March, written as 14(day)/3(month/2017(year). And Vi Hart happens to be American, as well as the creator of Pi Day, Larry Shaw in San Francisco 1998. So they use the American calendar system. Which I guess is good for Pi, because there is no 14th month. It can have a whole day to itself.

Anyway -then I wondered if there were more mathematical YouTubers – and I came across DorFuchs. Like Vi, he is a ‘mathemusician’, who combines maths and music to teach people mathematical concepts.  After watching a few of DorFuchs’ videos I decided,’Tja, dieser Kerl gefallt mir’, and I went to see some more of his stuff! 🙂

One of DorFuch’s videos is a rap about multiplying two 2-digit numbers 11-19 in your head. At first I thought – ‘how?’ For example, how many people can answer this:

13 x 19 =

…in a few seconds  and completely ohne Tachenrechner – without a calculator?

Now watch DorFuchs’ video

Don’t worry, I’ll tell you what he just said.

So in the first few seconds, DorFuchs outlines the problem: Multiplying numbers is extremely useful, and multiplying one digit numbers such as 6×7 is super-easy. But multiplying 13 x19 for instance is so hard. But, he says ‘Lernen den folgene Trick’ – learn the following Trick – and  then you’ll probably be able to do it without a calculator! ‘Und dann schafft du dass veillicht sogar ohne Tachenrechner.’ (0:26)


Aber was ist das Trick?? DorFuchs singt es zu uns:


‘Nimm die erste Zahl, plus die letzte Ziffer von der zweiten.

Hang einer Null dran, und jetzt bist du bereit, denn

Wenn du das Produckt der letzten Ziffern addierst,

Dann bist du fertig und du werdest schneller wenn du das nochmal probierst.’-0:34

So I tried this out on a few numbers – of course I had to translate it first, just to check what DorFuchs was doing.

So: Nimm die erste Zahl, plus der lezten Ziffer von the imperative form of verbs. der zweiten.’ – Hmm, seems he’s using the Befehlsform or imperative forms of verbs – to tell us to do something. As mentioned here, the imperative is formed by taking the ‘stem’ of the verb’.

Nehemn – to take

Take the first number, plus the last digit from the second,

Hang a zero (0) next to it, and now you’re ready – then

When you add the product of the last units,

Then you’re finished – and you’ll be quicker when you try it again..


and so on.


Die Zahl – number     Der Ziffer-, digit

eine Null – a zero

das Produkt – product (the result of multiplying two numbers)

multiplizieren – to multiply

addieren -to add

probieren – to try

(notice ‘mal’ can mean both ‘again’, as in ‘Noch mal’ and ‘times’ as in 18 times 19 = 342)

As DorFuchs shows us, this trick always works with any number from 11 to 19.

13x 19, I hear you ask?


13 + 9 = 22 Nimm die erste Zahl, plus die letzen Ziffer von der zwieten

22 (*10)= 220  Hang eine null dran (bzw. mal zehn) und jetzt bist bu bereit, denn

+ (3×9=27) Wenn du das Produckt der letzen Ziffern addierst

220+27 = 247

Dan bist du fertig und du werdest schneller wenn du das immer mal trainierst.


(And just in case you want to check the answer, grab your Taschenrechner and check it out.)

Online Taschenrechner/Calculator


And at 1:06 – DorFuchs explains WHY it works.

‘Doch Achtung! – redet das Trick wirklich nur von Zahlen von elf bis neunzehn an?’ -1:14

an/reden – to speak of, to address.

Does the trick really only address numbers from eleven to nineteen? How can you change the song – aka the formula – to make it work for numbers from 21-29, or 31-39 or 71-79?  (That was an open question – comment away, those of you who are mathematically inclined. Meine Antwort befindet sich auf Englisch unten in den Kommentaren.)


‘Denn diesener gerade 10 plus irgendwie Ziffer von eins bis neun -okay.‘ – 1:18

Und wir rechnen ja jetzt – zehn plus a mal zehn plus b.‘ – 1:19

(10+a) * (10+b)

DorFuchs here makes the multiplication into a formula that can be true for all numbers from 11 to 19.

Any of these numbers is 10 (zehn) plus ‘irgendwie Ziffer’ – some digit from one to nine.

These unknown digits are called a und b (in English we pronounce it (Ay and Bee) – In German it’s pronounced (Ah und Beh) )

As ‘mal’ means ‘to times’ or ‘to multiply’, we are multiplying (10+a) x (10+b), so

(10 + (random number A)) mal (10+ (wahllosige Zahl B)).

1:23Das macht, wenn ich schon mal von Multiplizieren nichts übersehe,

(10*10 (+ (10*b) +(10*a) + (a*b)


DorFuchs comes to this conclusion by expanding die Klammern – like this

(10+a) *(10+b) = 10(10+b) + a(10+b)

(10(10+b) = (10*10) + (10*b)   – zehn mal zehn plus zehn mal b


a(10 *b) = 10*a + (a*b)  – zehn mal a plus a mal b  )


(10+a) *(10+b) = 10(10+b) + a(10+b)


(Da die Zehne den ersten drei so man aus Klammern geht,

Konnen wir machen unseren Trick als Formula steht!)




(10+a) *(10 +b) = 10x 10 + 10*a + 10*b + a*b


(10+a+b)*10 + a*b


Nimm die erste Zahl plus die letzte Ziffer von der zweiten

Hang eine Null dran (mal 10) und jetzt bist du bereitet

Wenn du das Produkt der letzten Ziffern addierst

Dann bist du fertig und du werdest schneller wenn du das noch mal probierst!


And… damit du kannst noch mal probieren…. DorFuchs made a whole video of other examples to try on his second channel, DuFrosch – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CCdwcdCunD0

Danke schӧn DorFuchs, and I’ll definitely check out some more of your mathematical raps sometime!




Imperative forms: Because he’s telling us directly to do something, DorFuchs uses the imperative with verbs such as ‘Nimm’ and ‘Hang’ The imperative of ‘nehmen  is’nimm’ or ‘hangen’ to ‘Hang’.

Mathematical vocab: addieren – to add or – ‘plus’ +: but pronounced ‘P l UU s’ rather than English ‘p l uh ss’

multiplizieren – to multiply, or ‘mal’, to ‘times’, as in 6 times 7 = 42. Notice also ‘mal’ is used for times in other ways, such as ‘noch mal’ -I like to think of it as ‘still (another) time’

Die Zahl-(plural Die Zahlen) – number(s)

(And, just in case, eins(1), zwei(2), drei (3), vier(4), fuenf (5), sechs(6), sieben(7), acht(8), neun(9), zehn (10), elf, zwolf, dreizehn (13), vierzehn (14)… und so weiter…)

Der Ziffer – digit


(What does this have to do with PI Day? Check this out by DorFuchs- Pi ist irrational!

(I still don’t know why.)






When Interests Collide: Howards Ehrengedächtnis – Goethe

Plaques created by local children (and a few adults) during an arts workshop inspired by the English Heritage Blue Plaque scheme that took place at the Tottenham Ploughman “CloudFest” 2014.

Blue plaques in a fluffy cotton cloud – made by the children and adults around the old house of Luke Howard, the classifier of the clouds. From the Tottenham Clouds website.

Luke Howard, classifier of the clouds. 28 November 1772 – 21 March 1864

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832), the celebrated German author and poet, was interested in clouds himself and wanted to learn more about the young Luke Howard. https://tottenhamclouds.org.uk/goethe/

Wie geht es, Leute?

So I’ve been searching around in the older forums I used to visit, and one of these is The Cloud Appreciation Society.

Not that long ago I was really interested in clouds, and they remain amongst my other interests to this day. I learnt about the different types of clouds through chatting with other people on the Society, looking at the photo they shared, and reading much more knowledge people than me attempt to identify the different types.

There are different types of cloud, and each type is given a Latin name -There had been other cloud classification systems, yet this one in Latin, the (‘educated’) ‘global language’ of the 16th century, allowed other scientists and meteorologists from around the world to also identify the cloud type.

There are many types of cloud, but the main types are:

Stratus (Latin for layer) – the lowest cloud, forming like layers of fog in a way. (In German- Sichtwolken – ‘layer clouds)

stratus clouds

Cumulus (Latin for heap) – can be found at medium height, the typical ‘candyfloss’ or ‘sheeplike’ clouds – with many different subtypes. (German: Haufenwolken or Kumulus.)

(Comes from the same Latin root as the English verb ‘accumulate’, to add on- like cumulus clouds growing bigger and more puffy)

Image result for cumulus clouds

Nimbus (Latin for ‘dark cloud’) – a prefix used for a rain cloud, typically the stratonimbus or the Cumulonimbus- the large rain cloud that may also bring thunderstorms.

cumulus clouds

(Cumulonimubs cloud – Photo by Kevin Knupp University of Illilois Cloud Catalog. Its the highest cloud and stretches its ‘plume’ above the other cumulus.)

Cirrus (Latin for a curling ringlet of hair)- the highest clouds, looking like wisps of hair, made of ice streak that streak across the stratosphere. (German: die Federwolken – ‘feather clouds)

cirrus clouds

So what does this have to do with German? Well, a good while after that, I discovered that the person who invented this Latin naming system for the clouds was called Luke Howard. He was a chemist living in 16th century East London, however he was fascinated with the clouds. I found that he had moved to Tottenham, the area where I’m from (link goes to another external article I wrote about another famous Tottenham landmark).

Luke Howard actually lived specifically in this house:

Image result for Luke Howard's house 7 bruce grove

(Caption- Luke Howard’s house in Tottenham, London, with a blue plaque on it.)

(Caption: Luke Howard’s blue plague reads: English Heritage. Luke Howard, 1772-1864, Namer Of Clouds, lived and died here.)

Luke Howard, classifier of the clouds. 28 November 1772 – 21 March 1864

The English Heritage organisation awards the Blue Plaque to mark where a famous historical person used to live. Here is a link to their website on the blue plaque. The fact that they recognised Luke Howard was amazing, however the building is old and needs to be regenerated. There is even a petition to call on developers to help save Luke Howard’s house. (link to Tottenham Clouds, another cloud-loving blog that aims to popularise the fact that the Namer of the Clouds came from its hometown.)

So that was a pretty amazing find, but what does this have to do with German? Well, then I found out that Goethe, yes Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, the famous German author and poet who wrote Die Leiden des Jungen Werthers and Dr Faustus, also wrote a poem for Luke Howard.

It’s called Howards Ehrengedachtnis, roughly translating as Howard’s honoured Memory. It was written in 1821 when Luke Howard was around 49

An article in German about it (http://bib.gfz-potsdam.de/pub/schule/goethe/startgoe1.html)

And I just had to bring all my interests full circle and translate Howards Ehrengedachtnis… So, I did.

(This is a work in progress. If you see a mistake or want to help out, leave a comment below.)

(Diese Übersetzung ist in Arbiet. Wenn Ihr einen Fehler merkt, oder Hilfe bieten wollt, posten Sie unten in die Kommentare!)

Credit to zeno.org, where I found the full poem.

Howards Ehrengedächtnis – by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, 1821

[551] Wenn Gottheit Camarupa, hoch und hehr,

Durch Lüfte schwankend wandelt leicht und schwer,

Des Schleiers Falten sammelt, sie zerstreut,

Am Wechsel der Gestalten sich erfreut,

Jetzt starr sich hält, dann schwindet wie ein Traum,

Da staunen wir und traun dem Auge kaum;

When the god Campura, up and down,

Changes fluctuating through the air softly and violently

Of the veil’s folds collects, disperses them

In the changes of forms delights

Now rigid it holds, then disappears like a dream

Then we marvel and hardly believe our eyes.

Nun regt sich kühn des eignen Bildens Kraft,

Die Unbestimmtes zu Bestimmtem schafft;

Da droht ein Leu, dort wogt ein Elefant,

Kameles Hals, zum Drachen umgewandt,

Ein Heer zieht an, doch triumphiert es nicht,

Da es die Macht am steilen Felsen bricht;

Der treuste Wolkenbote selbst zerstiebt,

Eh er die Fern erreicht, wohin man liebt.

Now it boldly moves the picture’s own power

The uncertain established into certain

There threatens a lion, there weighed an elephant.

A camel’s neck transforms into a dragon,

An army is drawn, but not triumphantly

Because the power breaks between steep cliffs

The most trusted cloud message is itself scattered.

Until it reaches the faraway land, where we live.

Er aber, Howard, gibt mit reinem Sinn

Uns neuer Lehre herrlichsten Gewinn.

Was sich nicht halten, nicht erreichen läßt,

Er faßt es an, er hält zuerst es fest;

Bestimmt das Unbestimmte, schränkt es ein,

Benennt es treffend! – Sei die Ehre dein! –

Wie Streife steigt, sich ballt, zerflattert, fällt,

Erinnre dankbar deiner sich die Welt.

He, however, Howard, gives us with clear sense

New lessons of the most wonderful yield.

What doesn’t keep itself , can’t be achieved.

He tackles it, he first grasps the thought.

Ascertains the uncertain, narrows it down,

Names it aptly – Be the honour yours!

Like the patrol climbs, balls up, flattens, fallt,

I remember you thankfully the world


Wenn von dem stillen Wasserspiegelplan

Ein Nebel hebt den flachen Teppich an,

Der Mond, dem Wallen des Erscheins vereint,

Als ein Gespenst Gespenster bildend scheint,

Dann sind wir alle, das gestehn wir nur,

Erquickt’, erfreute Kinder, o Natur!

Related image

When from the still water mirror plan,

A fog wisp lifts from the surface of the pond.

The moon combines with the undulations of the appearance?

Like a phantom seemingly ghostly forming.

Then are we all, we all only admit,

Refreshed, delighted children – O, Nature!

Dann hebt sich’s wohl am Berge, sammelnd breit

An Streife Streifen, so umdüstert’s weit

Die Mittelhöhe, beidem gleich geneigt,

Ob’s fallend wässert oder luftig steigt.

Then lifts itself up to the mountains, accumulating wide,

Stripes are on patrol, so it () far

The middle heights, however that way inclined,

Whether it falls as water or to the air will rise.


Und wenn darauf zu höhrer Atmosphäre

Der tüchtige Gehalt berufen wäre,

Steht Wolke hoch, zum herrlichsten geballt,

Verkündet, festgebildet, Machtgewalt

Und, was ihr fürchtet und auch wohl erlebt,

Wie’s oben drohet, so es unten bebt.

Image result for cumulonimbus raining

And when to  the higher atmosphere

The capable content is called

The clouds stand high, wonderfully balled,

Announced, established, forceful might.

And, what you fear and also experience,

As it threatens over, so under it quakes.


Doch immer höher steigt der edle Drang!

Erlösung ist ein himmlisch leichter Zwang.

Ein Aufgehäuftes, flockig löst sich’s auf,

Wie Schäflein tripplend, leicht gekämmt zu Hauf.

So fließt zuletzt, was unten leicht entstand,

Dem Vater oben still in Schoß und Hand.

Image result for cirrus clouds

But ever higher climbs the noble urge.

Redemption is a celestial lighter force.

A lumpy accumulation, itself flakily resolves

Like scurrying lambs, combed lightly to a heap.

So it flows finally, what below easily occurs.

To the Father still above in shot and hand.

[552] Nimbus

Nun laßt auch niederwärts, durch Erdgewalt

Herabgezogen, was sich hoch geballt,

In Donnerwettern wütend sich ergehn,

Heerscharen gleich entrollen und verwehn! –

Der Erde tätig-leidendes Geschick!

Doch mit dem Bilde hebet euren Blick:

Die Rede geht herab, denn sie beschreibt,

Der Geist will aufwärts, wo er ewig bleibt.

Image result

Now let also downwards, through the earth’s force.

Be pulled down, what was on high.

In thunderstorms, angrily they fare,

Legions unroll themselves and blow away!

The Earth-active and Earth-suffering skill

But with the pictures you all lift your gaze.

There is talk of this, because it is described,

The spirit wants to go upwards, where he forever stays.

Image result for cirrus clouds diagram

What verbs can do- (mit Adventure Time, Ich erinne mich an dich)

Video: Adventure Time: Ich erinne mich an dich

So I haven’t been posting as much as I’d like to, due to being at university studying German, and also due to not exactly knowing how this language-learning blog will go. Now I think I know.

Verbs! Reflexive verbs, imperative verbs, modal verbs, verbs in the first person, second person, third person AND imperfect verbs, regualar and irregular verbs – I found them all in one of my favourite episodes of the American Cartoon Network show Adventure Time , or Abenteuerzeit mit Finn und Jake in German.

The main characters are a boy named Finn, the Human, and his adoptive brother Jake the Dog. They live in the Land of Ooo (translated as Uuh. Source: http://de.adventuretime.wikia.com/wiki/Uuh), a magical place that in the past had a nuclear war called the Mushroom War. However this particular episode is not about Finn and Jake – they do make a cameo, but are largely in the backseat in ‘I Remember You.’ No, this episode is about the “villain” or, more appropriately, ‘anti-hero’ of the series – the Ice King, http://de.adventuretime.wikia.com/wiki/Eisk%C3%B6nig, an old wizard who can use the powers of his magic crown to fly, shoot ice and generally cause mischief. He is usually described as ‘crazy’ and avoided by Finn and Jake.
However, he wasn’t always this way. Back in the time of the war, the Ice King was an intelligent archaeologist called Simon Petrikov, who discovered the crown and used it to protect his friend, Marceline, who was a little girl at the time. Around 1,000 years later, the Ice King is still alive because the powers of the crown prevent him from dying, while Marceline is still alive because she’s a vampire. Yeah.

In this episode, Marceline the Vampire Queen finds some notes among the Ice King’s old things, which he wrote when he was Simon Petrikov. The Ice King just wants to make some music with her, but Marceline remembers what their past was, and the truth hidden in the song that the Ice King is prevented from remembering….

So, onto the episode! And verbs.

‚haben‘ and ‚sein‘

Der Eiskong: Was hast du da, ein Apfel?

Two of the best verbs to know in German are ‘haben’ – to have, and ‘sein’ – to be. Why? Because they can create the past tense – Perfekt tense.
Zum Beispiel:
Ich habe einen Apfel gegessen – I ate an apple (habe is the first person/me/I from of ‚haben‘).
‘Was hast du da, ein Apfel?’ – What have you got there, an apple?
3rd person: Marceline hat ein Apfel geworfen – Marceline threw an apple

Ich bin nach Deutschland gefahren – I have travelled to Germany (I really haven’t…. not yet…..) (bin is the first person/me/I form of sein)
‘Du bist so erbahrmlich (?)’ – You are so annoying
3rd person: Der Eiskonig ist nach Marcelines Haus gegangen

So as you can see both are used for the past tense. They both are found with another verb, to say that this action was done in the past. However ‘sein’ is used in the past tense with a verb of movement, such as ‘gefahren’- to travel to another county; or ‘gegangen’, to go, possibly to ‘travel’ to a friend’s house.
However they can also be used ‘normally’ as in to have something, or to be something.

Das Beispeil im Video:
Der Eiskonig: Was hast du da, ein Apfel? – What have you got there, an apple?
(Marceline seufzt und lӓsst der Apfel fallen. Sie sitzt neben dem Kühlschrank, und der Apfel rollt zu dem musikalischen Instrument, und schalt es an. Marceline singt:)

Marceline: Du bist so erbarhmlich, du meiser alter Mann. – Youre so annoying, you miserable old man.
Ich will dir helfen, weiss ich nicht ob ich das kann. – I want to help you but, I don’t know if I can
Ich hӓlt‘ dich für verrückt… – I thought you were nuts
Doch du bist total, komplett verrückt.‘ – But you’re totally, completely nuts

Original lyrics by Rebecca Sugar.

So let’s check this out. I’ll put all the interesting verbs into the infinitive (- to ’verb’ form.)

  • Du bist so erbarhmlich…. – sein – to be (but you knew that, right?  see above… )
  • Ich will dir helfen … – wollen and helfen(+dat) – to want, and, to help
  • weiss ich nicht, ob ich das kann – kӧnnen – to be able to
  • Ich hӓlt‘ dich für verruckt … hӓlten jemanden/ etwas für – to ‚hold that someone is -‘… to hold (the opinion that) they are -, to think that.
  • Doch du bist total, komplett verrückt – sein – to be (again! Yay!)

Some verbs are regular, and you may be able to guess what they might look like if put in a different form other than their infinitive.
ie ‘haben’ – to have
Ich habe – I have
Du hast -you have
Er/sie/es hat -he/she/it has
Wir hatten -we have
Ihr hattet
sie/ Sie hatten

However, wollen – to want, is irregular, and it’s 1st and 3rd person form is ‚will‘
Ich will dir helfen.
Willst du er helfen?
Marceline will dem Eiskonig helfen.

(Tip: Watch Marceline’s faster bit ( from 0:41 to 0.58) with the speed down to 0.5 if you need to. It sounds amazing too!)
Marceline: Wohin ich mich auf verzicht? du spricht mich immer auf, und hängst hier herum
Unter einem Vorwand machst du dich hier breit, das bringt mich echt um.
Und dabei bin ich sogar froh, dich zu sehen.
Denn ich bin vielleicht…selbst verrückt….

(Idiomatic phrases)
(unter dem Vorwand – uder the pretence/ pretext of)
sich heir breit machen – to make your presence felt here (?)
sich umbringen – to be killed (metaphorisch, in this case-

Der Eiskonig steigt von dem Kühlschrank. Er ist überrascht, das Marceline magt ihn, und er versucht, sie zu küssen, wie eine andere Prinzessin. Jedoch Marceline bedeutet, dass sie der Eiskӧnig in der Vergangenheit kennengelernt hatte, und er kann das nicht erinnern.

Marceline: Weiss du uberhaupt wer du bist?
Eiskonig: Klar, wiess ich! Ich bin ein lurische Meister! Hier steht alles auf diesen Seiten. Seiten voller Sauce, baby! Auf dieser Rechnung, auf diesem Schmerzettel, oder auf diesen Zeitungen!‘

(A cool dativ exercise up there, by the way.)

Marceline: Auf diesem Bild, das war mal du, Simon, vor dem Kreig! Ach, du hast das vollig vollgekritzelt!‘

‘Stehen auf’ (not to be confused with auf/stehen, the separable verb) means to be put on – in this case to be written on. ‘Es steht auf (+dat.)’ because auf is a dativ kind of preposition.

The Ice King still doesn’t recognize his old self, but knows that on the papers there was something of his past. He thinks the words written down would make great song lyrics – ‘Ich hole das Keyboard!’
Marceline: Was? Warte! Hor mir zu!

Eiskonig: Ja, fangen wir an. Was steht den da, leg los, Schwester.

(Calls for seperable verbs.
Zu/horen an/fangen (? volgekritzelt)

Marceline, du und ich ganz allein und intrimmen dieser Welt?
Lasst mich dich halten, wenn dich sonst hier nicht mehr halt.
Einen Mann der immer zu dir steht, brauchst du
Ich verliere dich, du verlierst ich und wir sehen uns dabei zu.

Dieser* Zauber halt mich am Leben – This magic keeps me alive
Doch er macht mich fertig – But it makes me
Niemand kann mich retten,
Doch dich retten wird ich,
Sei mir gnadig, egal was ich tue
Aus dem Kopf verschwindest du.

So here we have great examples of how to tell different forms of verb. ‘Aus dem Kopf verschwindest du’ means literally, ‘From the (my) head, you disappear.’ ‘Verschwinden’ means to disappear, and -est is joined on to most present-tense 2nd person (you- singular form) verbs, replacing ‘-en’.

‘Werden’- the future tense. Hoped we’d get one of those! The future tense is made by a form of ‘werden’ and the infinitve of the verb.
‘Doch dich retten werd’ ich’ would be re-written as ‘Ich werde dich retten‘- I will save you.
Sei – another imperative. Take ‚sein‘- ‚to be‘, take off the -en (in this case n). Sei mir gnadig seems to mean, ‘Be merciful to me’ –
Egal was ich tue – from ‚tun‘ – to do. Another word for this is ‘machen’-to do, to make. Egal means ‘no matter what’

Eiskonig: Wow! Ich hab das geschrieben? Echt groovy!

Eiskonig: Marceline,
Irgendetwas zog mir von dir fort, – Something brought me away from you
Das zu erklären, fehlt mir jedes Wort. – To explain that, every word is missing from me
Du wurdest unglücklicher Tag für Tag. – You become sadder day by day
Ich wies das es an meine Krone lag – I know that it lies on my crown

The Imperfect tense:
Just touched on here, but still, the imperfect tense is sometimes used for the past, written in stories.
zog –3rd person past tense zogen to pull
lag –3rd person past tense lagen, to lay

(Der Eiskonig und Marceline singen zusammen. Marceline hat Trӓnen in ihre Augen, weil der Eiskonig wird nie erinnern, wer er früher war.

Dieser* Zauber halt mich am Leben
Doch er macht mich auch fertig
Niemand kann mich retten,
Doch dich retten wird ich,
Sei mir gnadig, egal was ich tue
Aus meinem Kopf verschwindest du.
Sei mir gnadig, egal was ich tue
Aus dem Kopf verschwindest du.

*I put Dieser Zauber, althought the version in the video writes Dein Zauber – but unless the Ice King is adressing the crown, I think that doesn’t make sense. Marceline wasn’t magical at the time, and the Ice King isn’t asking her to save him, as she was a child then.)

(3:47- Finn and Jake make thier appearance, watching from Marcelines window – but can anyone tell me what Jake’s saying at 3:47? Ich hab echt keine Ahnung! – I have no idea. Konnt ihr mir helfen, bitte?)

English song: ‚ Remember You‘ by Rebecca Sugar – http://adventuretime.wikia.com/wiki/Remember_You

German version: To be found.

I may make this a weekly thing – if so, the continuation of the Ice King’s story will be posted. For now, tschuss!

Pokemon Translation Game- Grass type Gym (Gras Arena)

Presenting the first Gym of my Pokemon Translation Game – the Grass type gym!

Here it is! (German to English)

I also find the Scatter option cool.

And, if your typing skills are up for it, the Gravity game.

While looking at the reasons behind some of the Pokemon names, I actually found a few interesting things. I love how aspects of every story can be based on or inspired by either real things or by other stories, sometimes even ancient myths, and it seems the Pokemon franchise is no exception.

Treecko , Grovyle and Sceptile (Geckarbor, Reptain und Gewaldro)

These three tree gecko-like Pokemon are inspired by an even more interesting real life creature – a leaf-tailed gecko!
Apparently they only live in Madagascar and can climb up flat vertical surfaces without anything stick on their feet. They can do this because they have tiny hairs on the pads of their feet, that are less than a millimetre thick. On their own they can’t hold onto anything at that size, yet because there are thousands of them, they allow the leaf-tailed gecko to grip onto even the shiniest of surfaces and stick and unstick its feet to walk along them. There are many species, and these make up the genus called Uroplatus.

Treecko (German: Geckarbor) (Japanese: Kimroi)

Anyway, Treecko is the most directly inspired by the leaf-tailed gecko – it being called the Tree Gecko Pokemon. Its English name even comes from ‘tree’ and ‘gecko’. Its German name, ‘Geckarbor’, comes from similar roots, ‘Gecko’ and ‘arbor’ which means ‘tree’ in Latin.

In Japanese, this Pokemon is called Kimori. It could be a mashup of ‘ki’, meaning tree and ‘yamori’, a gecko.

Grovyle (German: Reptain) (Japanese: Juptile)

Treecko’s evolution is called Grovyle in English – this is made up of the words ‘grove’, meaning a group of trees, and the end of the word ‘reptile’. As well as the leaf-tailed gecko, Grovyle’s appearance is apparently inspired by a much older reptile -the dinosaur Dromaesaurus. This dinosaur is said to have had feathers on its body – perhaps this is similar to the leaves on Grovyle’s body.
In German it is called ‘Reptain’, from ’das Reptil’ and ‘der Hain’, meaning grove, so the inspirations of Grovyle are similar to English. (‘Hain’ or ‘Freund Hain’ is also a word for the personification of Death. Spooky… especially as the particular species of leaf-tailed gecko that Grovyle/Reptain might be based on is called Uroplatus phantasticus, also known as the satanic leaf-tailed gecko! Maybe geckoes have something to do with the underworld? Or… probably not, as the name was first applied to the species by a gecko seller who wanted them to sound cooler so he could sell more of them.)

In Japanese it is called Juptile, the prefix ‘ju’ either from the English word jungle or Japanese ‘ju’ meaning tree, and reptile.

Sceptile (German: Gewwaldro) Japanese: Jukai

The last Pokemon in this evolution chain is Sceptile. In English, the name ‘Sceptile’ could come from ‘reptile’ and a genus of plants called Sceptiridium – or a ‘sceptre’, which is something a king holds, perhaps referencing Sceptile’s power- indeed its title is ‘King of the Forest.’
In German, its name ‘Gewaldro’ could refer to ‘Gewalt’, which means violence but can also mean force or power, and ‘Wald’ the word for forest. The prefix ‘dro’ is probably from ‘drohen’, meaning to threaten. This could suggest that Scepitle’s German name ‘Gewaldro’ is more focused on its power and the fact it is a Grass type. Meanwhile, ‘Sceptile’ more references the fact it is based of a reptile, and hints at its power or its grass typing with ‘scept’.
In Japanese, Sceptile is known as ‘Jukain’, as ‘jukai’ means jungle.

Turtwig , Grotle , and Torterra (Chelast, Chelcharain and Chelterrar

The Turtwig evolution line are based on tortoises. Also, Grotle and Torterra have bushes and even part of a tree on their back. This is based off the concept that the world is held up in space by a turtle, particularly in Hinduism, but also in other myths around the word, such as Chinese legend – but the version of the World Turtle that seems to be the basis of these Pokemon is from a legend among the Native American Lepane people, in which the Creator planted a large tree that grew from the mud on a turtle’s back. The concept of the World Turtle, supporting four elephants is in Hindu mythology. It also featured in the late Terry Pratchett’s Discworld series.

Inspired by the idea of a turtle with the world on its back, the evolution line appears to show a tree growing from the shell of the Pokemon as they get bigger. Their names also reflect the stages of the tree.

Turtwig (German: Chelast) (Japanese: Naetle)

In English, Turtwig comes from the words ‘turtle’, the aforementioned creature it is based off, and ‘twig’, the small branch to be found on its head.
In German, it is called ‘Chelast’. The prefix ‘Chel’ is from the Greek word for turtle, Chelonia. This is why all Turtwig’s evolutions begin with Chel in German, although the word doesn’t come from German itself. ‘Chelast’ also involve ‘der Ast’, which is a branch. This suggests that, similarly to English, it refers to the twig on this Pokemon’s head.
In Japanese it is called ‘Naetle’, inspired by the word turtle and ‘nae’, a sprout, similar to that on Turtwig’s head; this seems to be more accurate, as the small growth isn’t yet a fully grown branch.

Grotle (German: Chelarain) (Japanese: Hayashigame)

Turtwig’s evolution is Grotle. In English, this comes from the word ‘grove’, and turtle. In German it is ‘Chelarain’ – from Chelonia, ’Carapax’, meaning ‘carapace’, which is the hard upper crust on an animal’s shell, and ‘der Hain’. Similarly to English it refers to the ‘grove’, implying that Turtwig or Chelast’s small amount of greenery has grown bigger.
In Japanese it is ‘Hayashigame’, with ‘hayashi’ meaning grove, and ‘kame’ meaning turtle. The idea of Grotle being the ‘Grove Pokemon’ that it is, appears in all three languages.

Torterra (German: Chelterrar) (Japanese: Dodaitose)

Now for the final evolution- Torterra! This large Pokemon is also a Ground type as well as a Grass type, something that’s referenced in the ‘terra’ part of its English name, which is Latin for ground. The ‘tort’ prefix could refer to a tortoise.
Its Japanese name is Dodaitose – ‘do’ means earth or ground, and ‘dai’ means large. ‘dodai’ means foundation, possible because a large area of ground is a foundation, particularly for buildings, which is perhaps where the word comes from. (Warning: I do not speak Japanese.) The tose comes from English tortoise.
The German name ‘Chelterrar’ also takes the idea of being a Ground-type tortoise to embody or support the world, like the World Tortoise does. The ‘terrar’ comes from Greek ‘terra’ like in the English name ‘Torterrra’.

Hoppip, Skipoom, and Jumpluff (Hoppspross, Hubelupf und Papungha)

For some reason, it took me a while to notice this, but the design of this evolution line of Pokemon are based on the life stages of a dandelion. Their English names also involve the idiom ‘a hop, a skip and a jump’, which often implies a short journey, ie ‘He lives just a hop, a skip and a jump away’ perhaps to suggest each can jump higher than the last as their flower grows.
In English, Hoppip comes from ‘hop and ‘pip, another name for a seed, or a high-pitched squeaking sound.
In German, Hoppip is called ‘Hoppspross’. This seems to have similar inspirations from Hoppip, with ‘hopfen’ a verb meaning to hop, and ‘der Spross’, a sprout. Hoppip’s leaves sort of look like the leaves of a dandelion, suggesting it’s sprouted but not yet grown into a flower.
In Japanese, Hoppip is ‘Hanecco’. Perhaps ironically, all the Japanese names for this evolution end in ‘necco’ ‘Nekko means root, even though these Pokemon don’t have any. They are also referencing the growth stages of the dandelion, and the pefix ‘Ha’ means leaf, referring to the leaves that make up a windmill on this Pokemon’s head.

Skiploom (Hubelupf) (Poppocco)

Next up, Skiploom. In English, ‘to skip’ is to make a small jump, or to play skipping. The ‘loom’ cloud come from ‘bloom’, meaning when a flower opens up, most likely referring to the flower on Skiploom’s head
In German, ‘Hubelupf’ is this Pokemon’s name. Just like the English version, Hubelupf references this Pokemon’s higher jump, as ‘hüpfen’ means to skip. The start of the word could be from ‘hubbelig’, bumpy.

In Japanese it is called ‘Poppoco’, from ‘tanpoppo’, dandelion, and again the prefix ‘nekko’, root.

Jumpluff (German: Papungha) (Japanese: Wattacco)

The final evolution is Jumpluff. In English this completes the pattern by referencing a ‘jump’, and the final stage of the dandelion, its ‘fluff’.
In German this Pokemon is called ‘Papungha’, something I noticed while watching my first German-dubbed Pokemon film, Pokemon 4Ever. This also refers to the full growth of the flower with ‘pappus’ , the scientific name for the bristles on a dandelion seed, and ‘sprunghaft’, an adjective meaning jumpy, implying how high this Pokemon can go. Like a real life dandelion seed, it is carried by the wind. Just like English ‘Jumpluff’ the name refers to the dandelions atop its head, and its jump when carried by the wind.

In Japanese the theme of the flower dandelion growth also reaches its climax – its name is ‘Wattaco’, with ‘watta’ meaning cotton, and the nekko referring to roots like all this Pokemon’s pre-evolutions.

Chespin Quiladin and Chesnaught (Igamaro, Igastarnish and Brigaron)

These three Pokemon, both their names and designs, are based on hegdehogs.

Chespin (Japanese: Harimaron) (German: Igamaro)

Chespin’s English name is made up of chestnut, a brown fruit with a spiky green outer shell, and pin, a sharp point. Its German name is Igamaro, from ‘der Igel’, hedgehog and Marone, the chestnut fruit.
This is similar to the Japanese inspirations – in Japanese, this Pokemon is Harimaron, made up of ‘harinezumi, meaning hedgehog (with ‘hari’ meaning pin), and Spanish for brown, marron.

Quilladin (Japanese: Hariborg) (German: Igastarnish)

The Japanese Hariborg is from harinezumi, hedgehog and bogu, armour (or bouge, French for chesnut shell). It could be either, because this Pokemon’s chestnut shell also serves as it armour.

English Quilladin is from quil, a synonym for pin, and… Aladin? Nope, it’s from the paladin, who were said to be warriors of King Charlemange of France’s court. Charlemange was also the first Holy Roman Emperor.
The German name Igastarnish is from ‘Igel’, hedgehog, Kastine, ‘ chestnut’ and ‘Harnisch’, a historical suit of armour.

<a href="http://bulbapedia.bulbagarden.net/wiki/Rowlet_(Pok%C3%A9mon)&quot; target="_blank" Rowlet (German: Bauz) (Japanese: Mokuroh)

The newest Grass type starter from the upcoming game Pokemon Sun and Moon, Rowlet is based on a small owl, hence its English name includes ,owlet’, and the ‘r’ could stand for ’round, possibly referring to its shape.

Its Japanese name was the first to be released as ‘Mokuroh’ – from ‘moku’, wood, refering to its Grass type status, and ‘fukuro’, owl.

Its German name is Bauz – from ‘der Baum’, meaning tree’ and ‘Kauz’ a family of owls called Strigadae , one of the two owl families called ‘true owls’ (the other being barn owls, more like Hedwig from Harry Potter)

There are many fan theories as to what these new starters will look like when they evolve, but nothing official has been confirmed as of yet. However, I theorize that they might involve something to do with wood, as this is involved in Rowlet’s Japanese name.

Chesnaught (Japanese: Brigaron) (German: Brigaron)

Its Japanese name is Brigarron, from brigdardine, a type of Middle Ages armour, and marron.

Chesnaught is from chestnut and dreadnought, originally the name of a battleship: the HMS Dreadnought.

Its German name is extremely similar to its Japanese name- Brigaron, from ‘die Brigantine’, meaning the brigadine armour, and Marone, chestnut.

There are others, but I think going into them would make the game too easy… besides, there’s more Gyms to create…